Wood species

Eastern Hemlock

(Tsuga canadensis)

Eastern Hemlock is a native tree from Eastern Canada that grows in association with other species such as birch, spruce, white pine, maple and beech. This tree usually reaches diameters of 45 to 60 cm and a height of up to 21 m., although larger trees are often seen. A native tree, it grows slowly and can live up to 600 years. Its mechanical properties, including density, are superior to other softwood species in Eastern Canada. Eastern Hemlock belongs to the Hem-Tam (N) group ( Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack group) according to the National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA).

Colour

The heartwood is generally buff to light brown in colour and the sapwood slightly paler.

Texture and qualities

The grain ranges from wide to average and the wood is moderately light and hard. The wood tends to splinter and is cross grained.

Applications

Lumber: boards, coarse lumber, rough dimension stock and square timber. Parapets, construction posts and beams, platforms, light frames, sub-floors, boxes, crates, general construction, and railway ties.

Eastern Hemlock Spruce, Pine, Fir Group (SPF) White Pine Red Pine Scots Pine Southern Yellow Pine Douglas Fir
Tsuga canadensis Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Abies sativa Pinus strobus Pinus resinosa Pinus sylvestris Pinus alustris Pseudotsuga mensiesii
Density (kg/m3) 429 420 368 401 512 657 487
Modulus of rupture (kiln dry) MOR (MPa)) 81 78 65 70 84 97 87
Modulus of elasticity (MPa) 12 300 10 500 9 380 9 450 10 100 13 500 13 500
Hardness 2 740 2 430 1 650 2 120 2 420 3 900 2 990
Janka (N)
Dimentional shrinkage 11 % 11 % 8 % 7 % 7 % 12 % 12 %
Planing ** **** *** *** *** *** ***
Stability *** *** **** *** *** ** ***
Gluing *** *** *** ** *** *** ***
Mortisaint *** *** ** ** *** *** **
Turning ** *** *** ** ** *** ***
Nailability **** **** ** **** *** *** ***

Excellent:: ****  Very good: ***  Good: **  Fair: *

Sources:

  • Canadian Standard Association (CSA) O86.
  • Jessomme, A. P., Strength and Related Properties of Wood Grown in Canada, Forintek Canada Corp., 1995.
  • Tree talk, Wood of the World, 1997.
  • The Wood Explorer, 2001-2002.
Standard nominal (inches) and actual (mm) dimensions: thickness on width and lengths
Lumber dimensions, before drying
Product (inches – ’’) Length (feet – ’) (mm) Length (m)
Boards and planks 1 x 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10’’
2 x 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12’’
8′ to 16’ *
8′ to 16’ *
22 x 73, 98, 124, 149, 200, 251 mm
44 x 73, 98, 149, 200, 251, 302 mm
2.44 to 4.88 m *
2.44 to 4.88 m *
Beams and poles Min. 3 x 6’’ / Max 12 x 12’’ 8′ to 20’ * Min. 73 x 73 mm / Max. 302 x 302 mm 2.44 to 6.10 m *
Wall covering, standard profile, wide groove and round groove 1 x 5, 6, 8’’
2 x 6, 8’’
8 to 16’
8 to 16’
19 x 108, 133, 184 mm
38 x 133, 184 mm
2.44 to 4.88 m
2.44 to 4.88 m
Construction mats Blocks 8 x 8, 10 x 10 and 12 x 12’’
Widths 40 et 48’’
16 to 20’ Blocks of 200 x 200, 251 x 251 and 302 x 302 mm
Widths: 1016 and 1219 mm
4.88 to 6.10 m
Pallet stock 1’’, random widths 42, 50 ½, 62 ½, 85 ½’’ 22 mm, random widths 1.067 1.283, 1.575, 2.172 m

* Longer, wider or thicker products available upon request

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