Wood species

Red pine

(Pinus resinosa)

Red Pine is a slow-growing native tree found mainly in Eastern Canada. In homogeneous stands, often in plantations, or in mixed natural stands in association with White Pine or Jack Pine, it can reach diameters up to 60 cm and heights of 25 m. Since the wood grain is straight and readily treated with preservatives, Red Pine is an excellent species for outdoor applications. It can also be used for structural lumber because of its relatively high strength.

Colour

The heartwood’s colour ranges from light brown to reddish brown, whereas the sapwood is yellowish white.

Texture

Red Pine wood is relatively light and moderately hard. The wood grain is straight and tapering is minimal. Compared with the heartwood, the sapwood is relatively wide.

Qualities and applications

The thick rings of the Red Pine’s sapwood means it can be readily treated with preservatives. Red Pine can therefore be used outdoors and in contact with soil, and is suitable for poles, piling, railway ties and balconies. Red pine also has great qualities for appearance applications such as boards, panelling, log houses, exterior woodwork, wooden toys, household articles and garden tools. This tree can also be used for most construction work, but is rarely used as lumber since it is more valuable for making boards and poles. Other applications: finger-joined lumber and glulam.

Machine properties in decreasing order of the overall performance of 17 species*
Red Pine Eastern Hemlock Spruce, Pine, Fir Group (SPF) White Pine Red Pine Scots Pine Southern Yellow Pine Douglas Fir
Pinus resinosa Tsuga canadensis Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Abies sativa Pinus strobus Pinus resinosa Pinus sylvestris Pinus alustris Pseudotsuga mensiesii
Density (kg/m3) 401 429 420 368 401 512 657 487
Modulus of rupture (kiln dry) MOR (MPa)) 70 81 78 65 70 84 97 87
Modulus of elasticity (MPa) 9 450 12 300 10 500 9 380 9 450 10 100 13 500 13 500
Hardness Janka (N) 2 120 2 740 2 430 1 650 2 120 2 420 3 900 2 990
Dimentional shrinkage 7 % 11 % 11 % 8 % 7 % 7 % 12 % 12 %
Planing *** ** **** *** *** *** *** ***
Stability *** *** *** **** *** *** ** ***
Gluing ** *** *** *** ** *** *** ***
Mortisaint ** *** *** ** ** *** *** **
Turning ** ** *** *** ** ** *** ***
Nailability **** **** **** ** **** *** *** ***

Excellent: ****  Very good: ***  Good: **  Fair: *

Sources:
Canadian Standard Association (CSA) O86.
Jessomme, A. P., Strength and Related Properties of Wood Grown in Canada, Forintek Canada Corp., 1995.
Tree talk, Wood of the World, 1997.
The Wood Explorer, 2001-2002.

Nominal (inches) and actual (mm) dimensions *
Inches (’’) Length in feet(’) Millimetres(mm) Length in metres  (m)
Blocks 4 x 4’’
6 x 6’’
6 to 16’
8 to 16’
89 mm
140 mm
1.83 to 4.88 m
2.44 to 4.88 m
Floors
(3/4’’ thickness ; 19 mm)
4 to 12’’ 6 to 16’ 101.6 to 304.8 1.83 to 4.88
Poles Diameter minimum: 7 to 9’’ 42 to 62’ 178 to 229 mm 12.8 to 18.9 m

*Other dimensions and lengths available upon request

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