Species

Eastern Hemlock

(Tsuga canadensis)
Sepcification sheet: Eastern Hemlock

Eastern Hemlock is a native tree from Eastern Canada that grows in association with other species such as birch, spruce, white pine, maple and beech. This tree usually reaches diameters of 45 to 60 cm and a height of up to 21 m., although larger trees are often seen. A native tree, it grows slowly and can live up to 600 years. Its mechanical properties, including density, are superior to other softwood species in Eastern Canada. Eastern Hemlock belongs to the Hem-Tam (N) group ( Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack group) according to the National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA).

Color

The heartwood is generally buff to light brown in colour and the sapwood slightly paler.

Texture and qualities

The grain ranges from wide to average and the wood is moderately light and hard. The wood tends to splinter and is cross grained.

Common applications

Lumber: boards, coarse lumber, rough dimension stock and square timber. Parapets, construction posts and beams, platforms, light frames, sub-floors, boxes, crates, general construction, and railway ties.

Eastern HemlockSpruce, Pine, Fir Group (SPF)White PineRed pineScots pineSouthern Yellow PineSapin Douglas
Tsuga canadensisPicea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Abies sativaPinus strobusPinus resinosaPinus sylvestrisPinus alustrisPseudotsuga mensiesii
Volumic mass (kg/m3)429420368401512657487
Modulus of rupture (kiln-dried)(MOR)(MPa)81786570849787
Modulus of elasticity (MPa)12 30010 5009 3809 45010 10013 50013 500
Hardness Jenka (N)2 7402 4301 6502 1202 4203 9002 990
Dimensional shrinkage11 %11 %8 %7 %7 %12 %12 %
Planing*********************
Stability*********************
Gluing********************
Mortisaint******************
Turning******************
Nailability***********************

Excellent:: **** Very good: *** Good: ** Fair: *

  • Canadian Standard Association (CSA) O86.
  • Jessomme, A. P., Strength and Related Properties of Wood Grown in Canada, Forintek Canada Corp., 1995.
  • Tree talk, Wood of the World, 1997.
  • The Wood Explorer, 2001-2002.
Standard nominal (inches) and actual (mm) dimensions: thickness on width and lengths Lumber dimensions, before drying
Product(inches – ’’)Length (feet – ’)(mm)Length (m)
Boards and planks1 x 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10’’2 x 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12’’8'à 16’ *8' à 16’ *22 x 73, 98, 124, 149, 200, 251 mm44 x 73, 98, 149, 200, 251, 302 mm2,44 à 4,88 m *2,44 à 4,88 m *
Beams and polesMin. 3 x 6’’ / Max 12 x 12’’8' à 20’ *Min. 73 x 73 mm / Max. 302 x 302 mm2,44 à 6,10 m *
Wall covering, standard profile, wide groove and round groove1 x 5, 6, 8’’2 x 6, 8’’8 à 16’8 à 16’19 x 108, 133, 184 mm38 x 133, 184 mm2,44 à 4.88 m2,44 à 4,88 m
Construction matsBlocks 8 x 8, 10 x 10 et 12 x 12’’

Widths 40 et 48’’

16 à 20’Blocks 200 x 200, 251 x 251 et 302 x 302 mm

Widths 1016 et 1219 mm

4,88 à 6,10 m
Pallet stock1’’, random widths42, 50 ½, 62 ½, 85 ½’’22 mm, random widths,1,067 1,283, 1,575, 2,172 m

* Longer, wider or thicker products available upon request

E-Sample